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Cartographic, Positivism, Biological Positivism

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CRM 1301 Midterm



Tripartite Typology of causation (3)

average man

BMI + issue

Beirne's positivist criminology



virtues of an average man (3)

(T/F): areas with poverty and low education create more crime

In Le Compte Generale; the 2 factors that affect criminal behaviour

age of dispassionate

types of organized crimes (3)

3 types of causes that influence crime [Quetelet believed]

Principle of Proportionality

normal man


pathological theories

Empirical and Quantitative study of factors affecting society (3)

political arithmetic

(T/F): Pop. growth increases crime in an area

(T/F): personal and property crimes are equally related

dark figure of crime

Difference b/w moral stats and analytical stats

What did the cartographic school focused on?

(T/F): 1. wealthiest = higher property crimes 2. lower property crimes = rural areas

[Quet] moral stats

(T/F): 1. personal and property crimes were common in the winter

human ecology

Cartographic also called _____?

Thermic law of crime

problem with spatial analysis

What did Quetelet mostly examine?

(T/F): Quet believed ppl committed crimes bc they were poor

what did positivists see behavior determined by (3)

scientific analyses

Italian school comprised of who?


(T/F): 1. Western societes = pinnacle of human accomplishment 2. Criminals = individuals who ARE fully evolved as more civilized ppl

(T/F): Positivism is called a theory instead of a philosophy/perspective

2 forms of positivism

Positivist theories can either be? (2)

rational actor model of crime

(T/F): Ideas from the positivist school of crime rejected the doctrine of determinism and replaced it with rational actor and free will

Sub perspectives of Positivism (3)


Comte believed knowledge must be made from ? (3)

paradigm shift from positivism introduced what?

Modern criminology was the product of what 2 main schools of thought?

Difference b/w Determinism and Strong Determinism

The Enlightenment's flattering image showed what?

Good theory


Human agency

5 Reasons why human agency shouldn't be a concept/background assumption in Crim [Cullen]

[Cullen] positivism is unavoidable for who?

[Cullen] deterministic & risk of focusing on human agency in crim

[Cullen] In what ways is Human agency flawed?


Reflexivity and reflexive relationship

Mens rea vs. Actus rea

Brezina's conceptualization does what? (2)

What do choices differ by (4)

Intermittent/ zig-zag pattern for offending

Brezina's middle-ground theory

Course agency

Life course POV sees human agency as?

"selection" (Modern View of Human Agency)

Difference b/w persistent offenders and desisting offenders

Lombroso's theme of biological positivism & types of physical characteristics

Types of environmental factors Lombroso focused on (4)

[Lombroso] 4 Categories of a criminals

[Burke and Lombroso] 3 contributions to modern crim. theory


pathological approach

Rise of the expert/professions

positivist approach

Optimistic belief



Atavistic criminals could be identified by what?

Types of atavistic criminals (2)


Outer body vs Inner body

social body


criminal man


2 threats of social body boundaries




ideal type, other wise known as ?

Dependence theory

How many apartheid laws were there and what were the 4 categories

theory of crime brought together which 3 pre-Darwinian theories

What types of criminals did Ferrero and Ferri distinguish? (2)

Lombroso distinguished what types of criminals (3)


[Lombroso] said he could associate stigmata w/ certain types of criminals (3)?


positivists assume what 3 things human beings are subjected to?


Goring advocates can occur through what? (3)

[Ferri] crime was caused by what? (3)

4 criminal categories [ biological positivism]

Mala in se vs Mala prohibita

4 categories of criminals of forms of punishment

3 types of somatotypes + defn

what do genetics play a determining role in? (3)

2 broad types of Criminals

identical twins vs. fraternal twins

Search for biological dispositions also played an increased role in what? (4)


IQ - defn

Difference b/w correlation, causation, spurious correlation?

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